Surface residues and no-tillage reduce soil water evaporation
No-tillage cotton seeding, Five Points, Calif.
What Has ANR Done?Increasing the amount of water that is transpired by a crop relative to the amount that is evaporated by the soil, by reducing tillage or maintaining surface residues, may improve the water use efficiency in California crop production systems. In two field studies of standard tillage versus no-tillage operations, following wheat silage harvest prior to corn seeding, more water (approx. 1 inch) was retained in the surface foot of soil under no-till than in tilled soil. In three studies comparing residue effects on soil water evaporation, bare soil retained less water (approx. 0.4 to 0.6 inches) than under residues following 6-7 days of overhead sprinkler irrigation. Assuming a seasonal crop evapotranspiration (ET) of 30 inches, coupling no-tillage with high residue preserving practices could reduce soil evaporative losses in summer by about 4 inches (10.2 cm), or 13 percent. Before converting California cropping systems to no-tillage, residue-preserving production techniques, some practical factors must be considered.
No-tillage plus high-residue preservation practices reduce soil water evaporation in summerImproving the water use efficiency of crop production systems by reducing the amount of water that is evaporated by the soil is an important management goal for California agriculture. Transitioning tillage and residue management systems commonly used in California to high residue, no-tillage practices may partially accomplish this goal based on studies in Nebraska and Texas. Surface residues have been shown to modify the partitioning of seasonal ET by decreasing total soil water evaporation, increasing total crop transpiration, and increasing water use efficiency by 37 percent for strip-till grown cotton in wheat residue versus cotton under conventional plow tillage. However, a number of practical factors will need to be addressed before wholesale cropping system transformation to no-tillage, residue-preserving production occurs in California. In addition, more research is needed on water balance and crop productivity under actual no-till and high-residue field conditions.
Supporting Unit:Department of Plant Sciences and Department of Land, Air and Water Resources
Jeff Mitchell (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Wes Wallender (email@example.com)
Dan Munk (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Will Horwath (email@example.com)